The International Baccalaureate Program in the Global Age: Its Impact on Socialization and Public Education

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  • 国際バカロレアにみるグローバル時代の教育内容と社会化
  • コクサイ バカロレア ニ ミル グローバル ジダイ ノ キョウイク ナイヨウ ト シャカイカ

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 The number of schools that have been authorized to offer the International Baccalaureate Program (IB) has seen a remarkable increase globally since 2000. The program now includes public schools, since the educational philosophy and content of the IB corresponds exactly to the 21st century skills that are recommended by the OECD. This paper uses the example of the IB and its “international standard curriculum,” now also being adopted in some Japanese schools, to define the essence of ideal educational content in the globalized world and its current impact on socialization and public education. In addition, four patterns of adoption of the IB are defined through examples from around the world, and the characteristics of the Japanese case are extracted.<br> The IB Diploma Programme (IBDP) is characterized by the following three core elements. “Theory of knowledge (TOK)” teaches students to reflect on the actuality and nature of knowledge by learning about different ways of acquiring knowledge and also the essence of different academic disciplines. “Extended essay” is quite similar to an undergraduate thesis. “Creativity, action, service (CAS)” aims to develop creative, physical and social skills. These elements have an influence not only on one’s academic studies but also on reconstructing the textbook knowledge through a focus on “research and writing.” Socialization through this kind of knowledge prompts students to think of themselves as a cosmopolitan elite. At the same time, the academic knowledge provided by the IBDP differentiates and separates IB students from other students in the local community who are studying the national curriculum in the same school.<br> Four patterns of factors which have promoted the adoption of the IB can be observed. (1) In Britain, the IB program has been encouraged by educational reform, especially the reform of upper secondary education, and the programs are used as part of a response to globalization; (2) In the US and Canada, the IB program has been accepted as a special program under the school choice system; (3) China has introduced the IB program in order to increase their international competitiveness; and (4) Mongolia has partly adopted an international program to catch up with the effects of globalization in their modernized schools. One aspect of the ongoing review of current educational practice in Japan is the re-evaluation of existing educational practice, extra-curricular activities in particular, in the light of the IB’s core elements. The IB curriculum is being introduced through cooperation between schools and local communities.<br> Overall, as a model for interdisciplinary education, experiential learning, and an inquiry-based curriculum, the IB has a considerable influence on curricula and educational policy around the world. At the same time, the IB is creating new cultural capital through particular kinds of knowledge content and socialization. Modern education in some parts of the world is shifting the focus from “access and equality” to “relevance and polarization,” and the IB is playing a major role in this transition. The current Japanese approach to the IB may run counter to such a trend.


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