Reinventing the Stakeholder Theory for Global Competitiveness : Focusing on Interactive Relationships Based on the "Governmentality" Concept

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  • グローバル競争環境下におけるステークホルダー論の再構築 : 統治性概念による動的関係性論の試み
  • グローバル キョウソウ カンキョウ カ ニ オケル ステークホルダーロン ノ サイコウチク トウチセイ ガイネン ニ ヨル ドウテキ カンケイセイロン ノ ココロミ

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With increasing globalization, establishing effective relationships with various stakeholders has become crucial for multinational enterprises (MNEs) seeking to achieve sustainable development. However, the standard stakeholder theories are insufficient to guide them toward this goal. The standard theories are weak because they rely on static analysis of normative elements and organization-focused analysis. First, while the normative stakeholder theory is popularly considered to constitute the core of stakeholder theory, its models are based on a straightforward application of the existing ethical theories. However, norms can be time- and place -dependent. Since cultural diversity is increasing with globalization, mere application of the ethical theory is inadequate. Second, stakeholder theory has rarely been examined in the context of organization-stakeholder relations. Globalization has led to the emergence of dynamic MNE-stakeholder relationships, which needs to be incorporated into the theory. Toward this purpose, Michel Foucault's concept of "governmentality," which views government as a form of power is effectively applicable. According to Foucault, "government" is not limited to state politics alone. It includes a wide range of control techniques, and that applies to a wide variety of objects. In a modern society, neo-liberalism is considered to be a "technology" of government whereby power is decentralized and not only states but also intergovernmental organizations and non-state actors such as MNEs and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are the configurations of government. Thus, "emerging" stakeholders such as NGOs become influential with MNEs. By reexamining the case of Royal Dutch Shell pic, this paper derives two important implications. First, it is important for MNEs to recognize the various types of stakeholders as the configurations of government so as to occupy the advantageous position in the competitiveness. Second, MNEs should identify and create optimal norms through a dynamic and mutual subjection process with stakeholders. Hence, the stakeholder view (SHV) which encompasses both the resource-based view and the industry structure view should be emphasized for the global competitiveness. In this sense, the concept of governmentality can offer an innovative development of the SHV theory and contribute to MNEs competitiveness.



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