[Updated on Apr. 18] Integration of CiNii Articles into CiNii Research

The Development of the Camp School and Seaside School Programs in the Taisho Period : Focusing on the Case of Tokyo


Bibliographic Information

Other Title
  • 大正期における林間・臨海学校の展開 : 東京市の事例を中心に
  • タイショウキ ニ オケル リンカン リンカイ ガッコウ ノ テンカイ トウキョウシ ノ ジレイ オ チュウシン ニ

Search this article


This paper will analyze the significance of the policy of the local government during the developing of Camping School in Taisho period. This paper looks at camp and seaside school programs from two perspectives. (1) The Camp School programs were introduced to address society's need to improve standards of education and living. (2) Camp school programs expanded in the face of a rise in demand for improvement in the face of urban problems and the corresponding administrative responses. This paper will examine the significance of camp school programs from these two viewpoints, a subject that has not been the subject of previous studies. This paper examines the case of Tokyo particularly from the second perspective. The conclusion can be summarized as follows. The camp school program of Tokyo in the Taisho period was implemented with the intent to address a perceived crisis of "weakening children" and its cause, urban problems. However, it was difficult for individual schools to implement 1895 Tokyo Prefectural guidelines. In the beginning, these instructions were only implemented in schools that already had similar programs. This discrepancy between practice and policy was corrected in 1918 by Tokyo Prefectural Instruction No. 21, following which a camp school was opened to the public. In order to encourage camp schools throughout the country, a government subsidy was established for camp schools, even in Tokyo. The subsidy was insufficient, however, and did little to fund camp schools directly. The implementation of camping schools in Tokyo during this period significantly brought the camp school program to the attention of the public. While popular awareness of urban problem was high, the population at large was unaware of the shortcomings of Tokyo's infrastructure. For this reason, people sought a return to nature, the ideal environment, when faced with deteriorating living education environments. Government policies promoting camp schools played a prominent role in the development of this popular demand to send their children to spend time in a natural environment, but did little else. Because of camp school policies, criticism of urban problems and demand for improvement were quieted, and policy designed to reform the infrastructure of Tokyo was not developed. In other words, Tokyo Camp School proved to be a historical roadblock to the development of urban improvement policies.



Report a problem

Back to top