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On the Framework of Designing and Developing "appealing instruction" : The ARCS Motivation Model

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  • 「魅力ある教材」設計・開発の枠組みについて : ARCS動機づけモデルを中心に
  • ミリョク アル キョウザイ セッケイ カイハツ ノ ワクグミ ニ ツイテ AR

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This article introduces Keller's ARCS Model of motivational design as a framework for designing and developing "appealing instruction." Although motivation has long been a research question in the fields of both psychology and audiovisual education, and although there has been an increasing social interest in the affective effects of instruction beyond novelty effect, there is little knowledge which allows educational practitioners to systematically deal with learner's motivation. Based on the macro model of motivation and a thorough review of research findings, the ARCS Model was made available for instructional designers so that they can identify the nature of motivational problems and then consider motivational enhancements during the design process using the proposed four categories: Attention, Relevance, Confidence, and Satisfaction (i.e., ARCS Model). Subcategories, three in each of the four ARCS categories, are listed to further clarify the elements and theoretical underpinnings of these categories. Application areas are also listed in which a set of motivational strategies has been proposed. Finally, five types of research into the ARCS Model are summarized as follows: (1) descriptive research to identify motivational characteristics of a certain instructional material or environment; (2) prescriptive research to apply the Model in order to make instruction more appealing; (3) analytic research of instruction to survey current usages of motivational strategies and their effects; (4) evaluation research to develop methods of measuring learners' motivational status; and (5) developmental research for learning skill training programs to teach the ARCS Model as instructional content, thereby allowing the learners themselves to enhance motivation.


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