Middle School Students' Preconceptions toward Media as Related to Their Learning

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  • 中学生のメディアに対する先有知覚の性格と学習
  • チュウガクセイ ノ メディア ニ タイスル センユウ チカク ノ セイカク ト

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The purpose of this study is to examine the nature of middle school students' preconceptions and attribitions of learning from media and the correlational relationship between such perceptions and achievement at school. Through this examination, it is expected to find out more meaningful conditions for using media for teaching and learning. In this context, it is cognitive and motivational conditions around using media that is be questioned rather than media themselves. Subjects were 134 second graders in the three classes of Shiga University's Middle School (72 boys snd 62 girls). The questionnaire contained 1) paired comparison of watching television, using computer, reading, writing, and listening to a teacher in the three levels of preference, difficulty, and expectation for learning, 2) perception of reality for seven media including television, computer, print, and teacher, and 3) causal attribution of learning from teacher, television, book, and computer. The results showed, at first, a consistent tendency from the preceding research that the more one medium is preferred, the less difficult it is perceived to be, but the more likely one will learn from it. In addition, television was perceived to be more realistic, although it depended on the kinds of contents. Students tended to attribute the success of learning to effort, especially in the case of learning from teacher and book, but they attributed learning from computer more to ability, and learning from television to the ease of programs. Students' achievement scores were positively correlated with expectation for learning from teacher, suggesting the background of school culture. Experimental studies are needed to further explain causal relationships between these variables.


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