Secure Computation Protocols Using Polarizing Cards

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It is known that, using just a deck of cards, an arbitrary number of parties with private inputs can securely compute the output of any function of their inputs. In 2009, Mizuki and Sone constructed a six-card COPY protocol, a four-card XOR protocol, and a six-card AND protocol, based on a commonly used encoding scheme in which each input bit is encoded using two cards. However, up until now, there are no known results to construct a set of COPY, XOR, and AND protocols based on a two-card-per-bit encoding scheme, which all can be implemented using only four cards. In this paper, we show that it is possible to construct four-card COPY, XOR, and AND protocols using polarizing plates as cards and a corresponding two-card-per-bit encoding scheme. Our protocols use a minimum number of cards in the setting of two-card-per-bit encoding schemes since four cards are always required to encode the inputs. Moreover, we show that it is possible to construct two-card COPY, two-card XOR, and three-card AND protocols based on a one-card-per-bit encoding scheme using a common reference polarizer which is a polarizing material accessible to all parties.


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