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Change of Chemical Composition of Plant Culture Soils in Composting Process of Some Plant Residues and Responses of Plant Growth to Plant Culture Soils

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  • 数種の植物性廃棄物を主材料とした培養土の製造過程における物質変動と各培養土に栽培した植物の生育
  • スウシュ ノ ショクブツセイ ハイキブツ オ シュザイリョウ ト シタ バイヨ

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Abstract

We indicated in the previous paper that plant culture soil was easily manufactured by mixing and composting plant residues with sludge derived from water purification process. However, the contents of available phosphate and exchangeable calcium (Ex-Ca) in plant culture soils previously reported were markedly low, and it seemed to be responsible for the retardation of plant growth. In this paper, plant culture soils were manufactured by mixing and composting plant residues with sludges from water purification process under the supplementation of superphosphate and formed calcium silicate. Plant residues used in this experiment were tall golden-rot, mugwart, Japanese plume-glass, soybean, corn and black wattle. The results obtained were as follows. 1. Decomposition of any plant residues measured by the losses of dry matter, carbon and nitrogen rapidly occurred within the first one month after composting, and then the decomposition rate gradually became low, although it depended on plant species. In addition, it was recognized that the rate of decomposition was higher in order of corn>toll golden-rot>soybean>mugwart>black wattle>japanese plume-glass. There was a negative correlation between carbon content in plant residues and dry matter loss. 2. Nitrate nitrogen (NO_3-N) content of plant culture soils manufactured in this experiment was affected by plant species. Namely, the content was the highest in the plant culture soil made from soybean residues, and conversely was the lowest in the culture soils made from japanese plume-glass. Moreover, it was recognized that with the elapse of composting period, the NO_3-N content of plant culture soils made from soybean and corn residues decreased, while plant culture soils made from mugwart and black wattle increased. 3. Supplementation of superphosphate and formed calcium silicate resulted in the remarkable increase of available P_2O_5 and Ex-Ca contents in plant culture soils. 4. Growth of komatsuna, used as that plant, was higher in any plant culture soils manufactured than in control soil (fertilized soil). Consequently, it was considered that the plant culture soils manufactured by mixing and composting sludges from water purification process with plant residues gathered from arable land were useful as pot culture soils for rearing of vegetable seedlings.

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