Japanese Practice Guidelines for Fecal Incontinence Part 3 -Surgical Treatment for Fecal Incontinence, Fecal Incontinence in a Special Conditions- English Version

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<p>In Japan, the surgical treatment for fecal incontinence (FI) can be performed using minimally invasive surgery, such as anal sphincteroplasty and sacral neuromodulation (SNM), as well as antegrade continence enema (ACE), graciloplasty, and stoma construction. In addition, currently, several other procedures, including biomaterial injection therapy, artificial bowel sphincter (ABS), and magnetic anal sphincter (MAS), are unavailable in Japan but are performed in Western countries. The evidence level of surgical treatment for FI is generally low, except for novel procedures, such as SNM, which was covered by health insurance in Japan since 2014. Although the surgical treatment algorithm for FI has been chronologically modified, it should be sequentially selected, starting from the most minimally invasive procedure, as FI is a benign condition.</p><p>Injuries to the neural system or spinal cord often cause disorders of the sensory and motor nerves that innervate the anus, rectum, and pelvic floor, leading to the difficulty in controlling bowel movement or FI and/or constipation. FI and constipation are closely associated; when one improves, the other tends to deteriorate.</p><p>Patients with severe cognitive impairment may present with active soiling, referred to as "incontinence" episodes that occur as a consequence of abnormal behavior, and may also experience passive soiling.</p>


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