A Note on the Sanskrit Word vinaya

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Other Title
  • Vinaya 研究
  • A Note on the Sanskrit Word vinaya (English Summary)
  • Note on the Sanskrit Word vinaya English Summary
  • Vinaya ケンキュウ

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Abstract

Here are discussed various semantic facets of the word vinaya in classical Sanskrit. An attempt is also made to analyse and place the term Vinaya (in its sense of 'Basket of Discipline' as one division of the Buddhist Tripitaka) in this larger context. The original meaning of vinaya is simply 'removal' (from the verbal root vi-ni-'to take away'). This can be seen in a compound uttariya-vinaya 'taking away the upper garment'[so that the beloved woman's breast can be seen] occurring in a romantic verse of the Sisupalavadha 10.42 (cf. also, ambaram vinayatah in 10.62). The paper examines how this original meaning, which, as exemplified here, may acquire romantic or even erotic connotations, came to be related to the Buddhist in the sense of 'moral discipline.' Here are the main semantic areas of the word: (1) Removal (vinaya, vinayana, vi-ni-) (1-1) Removal of physical pains (=healing): in construction with trsna, adhva-srama, and kapola-kandu (of an elephant). (1-2) Removal of mental pains: duhkha, jvara, ayasa, hrdaya-granthi, bhaya. (1-3) Removal of fighting valour: yudhha-sraddha, darpa. (1-4) Removal of vices: (1-4-1) Pall texts: papa akusala dhamma in general, i.e., raga, dosa, moha, iccha, kodha, makkha, satheya, maya, asmi-mana, upanaha, pipasa. (1-4-2) Sanskrit uses: (1-4-2-1) vinita+raga, moha, krodha, harsa, rosa, trsna, kilbisa. Cf. also vinitatman, vinita-vesa. (1-4-2-2) manyu, asuyd, mada, krodha, mdna, irsya, vega. (2) Control (2-1) Taming of the wild animal: elephant, horse, ox. (2-2) Breeding of child: saisava, sisutva, bola-bhava, (abhinava-) yauvana, etc. (2-3) Training of warriors: hasty-asva-ratha-praharana-vidya-, astra-. of courtizans: kala. (2-4) Education in general. (2-5) Education in decorum in particular (vinaya-sampanna, etc.) (3) Its opposites. (3-1) a-vinaya. (3-2) dur-vinita. (3-3) vinaya and avinaya. (3-4) vinaya as a son of dharma and lajja. (4) Conclusion The usage of vinaya started from the meaning of 'taking away' or 'removal' of a concrete thing (which, in uttariya-vinaya, may refer to a woman's upper garment) and gradually came to encompass more abstract notions as pain (duhkha, etc.), and then vices in general (akusala dhamma). The term eventually came to be imbued with connotations of self-control or discipline, particularly referring to decorum, and it is this sense which is reflected in the Buddhist technical sense of Vinaya. (5) Miscellanea (5-1) vi-naya in the sense of the negation of naya (Sisupalavadha 16.7). (5-2) vinaya in the sense of nigada (Ganapati sastri) (Pratijna-yaugandharayana 2.13 prose: ahita-vinayatvat padayor…). It is remarkable that the original meaning of "setting free" (vi-ni-) finally developed into its opposite, that is "setting hold of" through "restrain and control." (5-3) naya and vinaya: vi-naya as an intensified form of naya in the sense of "various sorts of naya," instead of "policy and decorum." Cf. similar constructions in Sanskrit such as dis and vidis, jnana and vijnana, sesa and visesa, dhata and vidhata.

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