The first use of French word Education : in the manuscript BnF français 9683

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  • educationの初出 : ヴァンサン・ド・ボーヴェ『貴族の子らの教養』フランス語訳
  • education ノ ショシュツ : ヴァンサン ・ ド ・ ボーヴェ 『 キゾク ノ コ ラ ノ キョウヨウ 』 フランスゴ ヤク

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Abstract

In this paper, we show that we can find the first use of the word "education" in the chapters 23 and 40 of the manuscript dated 1401-1500 (BnF français 9683, 71v and 161r), which was a French translation of Vincent de Beauvais (d.1264)'s De Eruditione Filiorum Nobilium by Jean Daudin (d.1382). It is named De la condition ou enseignement des enfans nobles.  As for the first use of éducation, French translation of Vincent de Beauvais' Speculum historiale (Miroir historial) by Jean de Vignay (1283?-1340?) has been referred to by modern dictionaries. For example, Dictionnaire Étymologique de la Langue Française (Oscar Bloch and Walther von Wartburg eds.) reads: "éducation 1495", and Trésor de la Langue Française follows it: "Éducation 1495 J. de Vignay d'apr. BL. -W.1-5". Certainly, we can find the sentence "Educatiō et discipline fait les meurs" in Miroir historial printed in 1495 (Le Second volume de Vincent Miroir historial, Paris, 1495, translated by Jean de Vignay, 41r). "Educatiō" (Education) was correspondent to the Latin word "Educatio" in Pseudo-Seneca's De moribus: "Educatio et disciplina mores facit".  However, we cannot find "education" in precedent manuscripts in the 14th and 15th centuries, which did translate "educatio" into "Nourriture" (Miroir historial, traduction en français par Jean de Vignay, Livres IX-XVI, 1300-1400, Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal Ms-5080, fol. 45v; vol. II. (Livres VII-XI), 1370-1380, NAF 15940, fol. 121r; vol. 2, Livres IX-XVI. 1396, BnF, fr.313, fol. 11v; vol.1, Livre I-IX, 1455, BnF, fr.308, fol. 368r). Accordingly, it should be uncertain to be able to assert that we can find the first use of education in the 14th century manuscript, though Dictionnaire Étymologique de la Langue Française (Albert Dauzat ed., Librairie Larousse, Paris, 1938) declared "1327, Mir. hist.", and though Gaston Mialaret asserts "Dauzat signale pourtant qu'il [le mot «éducation»] est apparu en 1327 dans le Miroir historial de Jean de Vignay" (Les sciences de l'éducation, PUF, 11e édition, 2011).  On the other hand, as for our French translation (BnF français 9683) dated 1401-1500 of De Eruditione Filiorum Nobilium, we can even suppose that the first use of education dates back to the 14th century, before 1495 at the latest, because the translator Jean Daudin was active in the 14th century and "only one copy of the French translation is in existence, in a fifteenth-century manuscript, B. N. français 9683" (Arpad Steiner ed., Vincent of Beauvais: De eruditione filiorum nobilium, Medieval Academy Books, No. 32, 1938).  In the chapter 23 of BnF français 9683, French translation reads: "Seneque ou liure des meurs Education ou nourriture est discipline Cest a dire education disciplinee fait ses meurs" (71v). This was a translation of the Latin sentence "Seneca in libro de moribus Educatio inquit et disciplina id est educatio disciplinata mores facit" which was correspondent to the sentence "Educatio et disciplina mores facit" in pseudo-Seneca's De moribus. This use of "education" was very a rare case in the 14th and 15th centuries, for the standard translation word of the Latin educatio was "nourriture"; "nourriture" in Laurent de Premierfait (d.1418)'s translation (Les Euvres de Sénèque, translatez de latin en françoys par maistre Laurens de Premierfait, Paris, 1500-1503, 50r) and "norreture" in Ce sont des prouerbes seneke le philosophe (Recueil d'anciennes poésies françaises, 1275-1300, Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal. Ms-3142, 320r).  This emergence of "education" in BnF français 9693 was the first faint signal which announced a grand historical landslide of vocabulary motherboard. The Latin educatio was one of equivalent terms of the Greek word "τροφή" (trophē). But in the 15th century, the Greek word "ὰγωγή" (agōgē) also came to be translated into Latin "educatio" gradually, together with "τροφή". And then in the 16th and the early 17th century, "ὰγωγή" occupied the word "educatio"-"education", with "παιδεία" (paideia).

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