Kofun culture and the ancient Maya: An introductory comparative archaeology of “Out of Eurasia"
- Other Title
Both the ancient Maya and Kofun society of Japan were cultural regions formed by Homo sapiens groups after leaving the Eurasian continent more than 10,000 years ago. In this paper, we examine their similarities and differences by comparing perspectives on time and space. The two societies were stratiﬁed and witnessed the development of monuments that emphasized their verticality. The greatest similarity was the formation of a network society in which local polities coexisted without the institutionalization of centralized leadership at the beginning. Subsequently, the Kofun society adopted the worldview of the Eurasian continent including the concept of the "nation", thereby achieving a new social integration. On the other hand, the ancient Maya, a primary civilization, did not go through the same social process and maintained a sustainable society over a long period of time, maintaining the same form of worldview, monuments, and technological systems. On the similarities rooted in the universality of the human body and cognition, disparity in the process of environmental and social changes, including the direction and distance of "Out of Eurasia", can be seen in the subsequent differences between the ancient Maya and the Japanese archipelago. In this paper, we have illustrated how the similarities and diﬀerences created diverse directions of culture and history.
文明動態学 1 21-38, 2022-03