An independent, non-neuronal cholinergic system in lymphocytes and its roles in regulation of immune function.

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  • リンパ球における非神経性コリン作動系の発見とその生理的役割の解析
  • 受賞者講演 リンパ球における非神経性コリン作動系の発見とその生理的役割の解析
  • ジュショウシャ コウエン リンパキュウ ニ オケル ヒシンケイセイ コリン サドウケイ ノ ハッケン ト ソノ セイリテキ ヤクワリ ノ カイセキ

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Abstract

Acetylcholine (ACh) is classically thought of as a neurotransmitter in mammalian species. However, lymphocytes express most of the cholinergic components found in the nervous system, including ACh, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), high-affinity choline transporter, and acetylcholinesterase as well as both muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors (mAChRs and nAChRs, respectively). Activation of T cells via the T cell receptor/CD3 complex, contact of T cells with antigen presenting cells, or activation of the adenylyl cyclase pathway in T cells modulates cholinergic activity, as evidenced by up-regulation of ChAT and M5 mAChR mRNA expression. Stimulation of mAChRs on T and B cells with ACh or another mAChR agonists elicits intracellular Ca2+ signaling, up-regulation of c-fos expression, increased nitric oxide synthesis and interleukin-2-induced signal transduction via M3 and M5 mAChR-mediated pathways. Acute stimulation of nAChRs with ACh or nicotine causes rapid and transient Ca2+ signaling in T and B cells, probably via α7 nAChRs subunit-mediated pathways. Chronic nicotine stimulation, by contrast, down-regulates nAChR expression and suppresses T cell activity. Abnormalities in lymphocytic cholinergic system have been seen in animal models of immune deficiency and immune acceleration. Collectively, these data provided a compelling picture in which immune function is, at least partly, under the control of an independent, non-neuronal cholinergic system in lymphocytes.<br>

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