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Cognitive Constraints and its Relaxation in Appreciation of Painting

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  • 絵画鑑賞における認知的制約とその緩和
  • カイガ カンショウ ニ オケル ニンチテキ セイヤク ト ソノ カンワ

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It is known that naïve viewers have “reality constraints” in art appreciation, namely<br> strong tendency to insist on identifying depicted object and its realistic expression in<br> the artwork. Relaxing the reality constraints might help the naïve viewer to appreciate<br> artworks in more creative way. In this paper we investigated whether reading com-<br>mentary on artwork helps appreciation and what kind of commentary is more effective.<br> Fifty college students without particular art education participated in an experiment.<br> The participants were assigned to one of four conditions. The experiment consisted of<br> two phases: preliminary appreciation phase and main appreciation phase. In the pre-<br>liminary appreciation phase, three groups of participants were presented paintings by<br> Renoir, Matisse and Klee, and made free descriptions on their thoughts on each paint-<br>ing. Along with each of painting, a commentary on objects depicted in the painting was<br> provided to participants in object commentary condition, a commentary on formal and<br> technical aspects of the painting was provided to formal commentary condition, and<br> no commentary was provided no commentary condition. No preliminary appreciation<br> condition skipped the preliminary appreciation phase. After the preliminary apprecia-<br>tion phase, all the participants were presented two paintings by Gogh and Kandinsky<br> without any commentary and made free description. Analysis of free description in<br> main appreciation phase showed that (1) reading commentary activated verbalization<br> during the appreciation, (2) the participants generally focused on what was depicted<br> in the painting, (3) reading commentary on technical aspects was more effective for<br> relaxing reality constraints and deepening the experience of paintings.


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