This paper argues that three-way communication must occur for the family to regain its strength in the Japanese society. Because the third person, namely the father, has been absent often, communication has been chiefly diadic, between mother and child. In diadic communications, the participants cannot objectify themselves. As a result, the development of sense of Self is hampered. This in turn interferes with intimacy in relationships. A description of group therapy over the period of a year involving mothers who have school refusal children (now adult) illustrates the restitution of three way communication. Analysis of the process is included showing three stages of change; (1) instrumental communication; (2) autistic communication and (3) empathetic communication.
Japanese Journal of Social Psychology 9 (3), 157-170, 1994
The Japanese Society of Social Psychology