[Updated on Apr. 18] Integration of CiNii Articles into CiNii Research

Handwriting Speed and Accuracy of Japanese Elementary School Students When Writing From Dictation

Bibliographic Information

Other Title
  • 小学校通常学級在籍児童の聴写書字速度と正確さ
  • ショウガッコウ ツウジョウ ガッキュウ ザイセキ ジドウ ノ チョウシャショジ ソクド ト セイカク サ

Search this article


The purpose of the present study was to investigate the handwriting speed and accuracy of Japanese elementary school children when writing from dictation. In 2 separate tests, the pupils took dictation of 40 real words and 40 nonwords, respectively. Each test included ten each of 2-character, 4-character, 6-character, and 8-character words. The participants (519 boys, 538 girls) were pupils from grades 1 through 6 at 4 randomly selected elementary schools in Ishikawa Prefecture. The results showed that the pupils' handwriting speed (characters per minute) increased with each grade. The regression line for the real words test was y=6.6x+19.5, and for the nonwords test, y=5.8x+18.4. Furthermore, the results showed that the girls wrote faster than the boys in grades 1, 2, and 3 on the real words test, and in grades 3 and 4 on the nonwords test. On the real words test, the number of 6- and 8-character words without errors increased with each grade. This suggests that the number of words in children's mental lexicon increases with each grade. The present study's baseline data on the handwriting speed and accuracy of children when writing Japanese provides substantial information for future research and practice.


Citations (1)*help

See more

Related Projects

See more


Report a problem

Back to top