Since 1970s local government reform, four main concepts of Publicness in Denmark have been democracy from below, governance, public-private partnership and policy network. In Denmark, public and private sectors including local government, voluntary associations, NGOs and residents work together in creation and implementation of a plan. The network of relationships among the various participants of planning process characterizes diversity of Publicness. It is noted that public participation in planning process is empathized and actively pursued.
Journal of Architecture and Planning (Transactions of AIJ) 69 (581), 111-117, 2004
Architectural Institute of Japan