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THE STRUCTURE AND TIMBER CONNECTION OF CHUANDOU-SYSTEM WOODEN HOUSES OF MIAO NATIONALITY

  • LI Xue
    World Heritage studies, Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Science, University of Tsukuba
  • KURODA Nobu
    Faculty of Art and Design, University of Tsukuba
  • FUJIKAWA Masaki
    Faculty of Engineering, Information and Systems, University of Tsukuba
  • ANDO Kunihiro
    University of Tsukuba

Bibliographic Information

Other Title
  • ミャオ族の穿闘式木造民家の架構と仕口
  • ミャオ族の穿闘式木造民家の架構と仕口 : 中国貴州省における少数民族の穿闘式木造民家の構法に関する研究
  • ミャオゾク ノ セントウシキ モクゾウ ミンカ ノ カコウ ト シグチ : チュウゴクキシュウショウ ニ オケル ショウスウ ミンゾク ノ セントウシキ モクゾウ ミンカ ノ コウホウ ニ カンスル ケンキュウ
  • -中国貴州省における少数民族の穿闘式木造民家の構法に関する研究-
  • -A study on the construction method of chuandou-system wooden houses of minority nationality in Guizhou Province, China-

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Abstract

 The Chuandou System (pillars-and-transverse-tie-beams) wooden frame is wildly used in Miao people's houses in Qiandongnan region of Guizhou Province of China. The Chuandou System wooden frame is composed of vertical pillars and horizontal beams called "Fang". In this area, the house building is following a traditional production organization that the local carpenters design the house and process wooden components and the setting-up of the frame that is completed by joint work of villagers. By investigating the construction process of G house in Gongna Village, Qiandongnan region, this study has clarified that five types of the mortise and tenon joints are used in Chuandou-systerm wooden. The dimension characters of horizontal beams (Fang) were also clarified. In addition, the relationship between types of mortise and tenon joints, the dimension characters of horizontal beams (Fang), and the production organization of house building would be discussed in this study.<br> In G house, the wooden frame could be separated into roof truss and framework. There are two types of mortise and tenon joints in roof trusses.. One of the joints that carpenters cult into a cavity in bottom of short pillar, and the cavity could be used as a mortise to put the short pillar on horizontal beam. Another type of the joints could be considered as a "haunched stob tenon joint", which is used to put horizontal beams(Fang) into short pillars. Also, there are three types of mortise and tenon joints in the frameworks. One type could be considered as a "pegged tenon joint". A haunched stob form tenon on the end of the beam inserts into the mortise. For strengthening the mortise and tenon, a peg is drived into one hole both through mortise and tenon. In another type of joints, tenon is in the middle of the horizontal beam (Fang) that could be passed across mortise and a key could be drived into horizontal beam (Fang) close to the pillar. The last type of mortise and tenon joints also could be considered as a "pegged tenon joint". Pair of horizontal symmetry beams come from two sides of the pillar, and two tenons on the end of beams are joint in one mortise. A peg also has been drvied into two tenons and one mortise to fix them.<br> After the processing of wooden components, local villagers have to set up the Chuandou system frame by a very simple way in two days. They move horizontal beams (Fang) or vertical pillars to join mortises and tenons, and use wooden hammers to hit the beams to strengthen the connection of mortise and tenons. To provide an effectively setting-up construction, the local carpenters should devise the combination of mortise and tenon joints, and also process the horizontal beams (Fang) by different heights and widths in different positions even in the same beam as the shorter area can ensure the beams insert mortise smoothly. Therefore, relatively complicated process skill as well as a simple setting-up frame is developed in this region.

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