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The Establishment of the New Barga (Sin-e Barγu) Eight Banners


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  • 新バルガ八旗の設立について : 清朝の民族政策と八旗制をめぐる一考察
  • シン バルガ ハッキ ノ セツリツ ニ ツイテ シンチョウ ノ ミンゾク セイ

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From Yongzheng 10 (1732) to 12 (1734), the Qing government removed some ethnic groups-the Solons, Dahurs and others from Butha in Heilongjiang and the New Barga from Khalka-to the Hulun-beir region and organized the "eight banners". Although very few historical studies have ever been made on the establishment of the eight banners of Hulunbeir, we can find plenty of materials for this purpose in the Manchu archival documents stored at the Number 1 Historical Archives in Beijing. This fact proves that the Manchus attached importance to this matter. The aim of the present paper is to cast new light on the process of the migration, and the reasons why the Qing government created the eight banners of the migrants, giving special attention to the New Barga who were picked out from among the Khalkhas. What urged the Manchus to plan the removal of the Barga from Khalka to Hulun-beir was the escape of thousands of Barga belonging to one of the qosiru in Setsen Khan Aimak into the Russian territory in Yongzheng 8 (1730). The motive of their escape was to get free of the discriminatively heavy taxes which they were burdened with by their Khalkha ruler (jasar) to pay for assisting the Qing army to carry out the war against the Dzungars. The Manchus, therefore, attempted to prevent any further commotion by separating them from the Khalkha rulers. Although the plan met with some resistance from Khalkha rulers, through various preserving maneuvers, at last the Manchus successfully removed more than 3,000 Barga families in Yongzheng 12. The reasons why the Qing government adopted the eight banner system in ruling them were 1)to dissolve the old feudalistic social organization, for under the eight banner system there were no nobles who would burden the common people with private taxes; 2)to guarantee their living, for according to Qing's rule, the people under the eight banner system would be supported at public expense. Through the above investigation of the New Barga, a foundation has been built for further research on the other groups that were organized into the eight banner system in Manchuria and Mongolia (the so-called New Manchus, the Chakhars, etc.) after the Qing dynasty's conquest of China.



    SHIGAKU ZASSHI 102 (3), 369-403,488-48, 1993

    The Historical Society of Japan


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