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DEVELOPMENT OF A JAW-MOVEMENT SIMULATOR, JSN/1D, AND ITS CONTROL FOR AUTONOMOUS OPEN-CLOSE MOVEMENT

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Other Title
  • 顎運動シミュレータJSN/1Dの開発と自律開閉口運動の制御
  • 顎運動シミュレータJSN/1Dの開発と自律開閉口運動の制御(2部 生体の特性)

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Abstract

In order to clarify the control mechanism of jaw movements, we developed an autonomous jawmovement simulator, JSN/1 D, which incorporates cable-tendon DC-servo actuators, simulating the masseter, temporalis, lateral pterygoid, and digastric muscles. The actuators were controlled adaptively under an impedance-control mechanism, utilizing data for biteforce, tooth contact, cabletension, and cablelength. In order to achieve more lifelike open-close movement on the simulator, we introduced a control hypothesis that during closing, the horizontal mandibular position is determined by antagonistic activities of the posterior portion of the temporalis muscles and the lateral pterygoid muscles. This hypothesis was materialized by an impedance control for the posterior temporalis actuators and an antagonizing tension-control of the lateral pterygoid muscles. The actuators were activated in the following manner, so as not to contradict anatomical and physiological knowledge of the jaws. The masseter actuators were activated only during biting, in order to exert bite force. The anterior temporalis actuators under impedance control were solely responsible for determining the vertical position of the mandible during closing and supported the masseter actuator during biting. During opening, the digastric and lateral pterygoid actuators were co-activated to lower the mandible. Both actuators were driven under tension control, due to the lack of the muscle spindles in corresponding muscles. At rest, all the actuators functioned as a weak elastic body like actual muscles. Experimental results demonstrated that the aforementioned control scheme can produce a reproducible lifelike open-close movement on the simulator , while referential experiments with less activation of the α-γ linkage of the posterior temporalis control showed kinetic instability, particularly in the closing phase. All these suggest a possibility of stabilizing the mandible during closing through position control of the posterior temporalis muscles and antagonistic tension-control of the lateral pterygoid muscles. A single alternative to this control scheme is to employ an excessive co-activation of the two muscles to make the position of the mandibular head less compliant. This is hardly acceptable, however, because no such strong activities are observed in both muscles during closing. Physiological validation of the proposed control scheme is a task that should be dealt with in a subsequent study.

Journal

  • Biomechanisms

    Biomechanisms 14 (0), 149-160, 1998

    Society of Biomechanisms

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