Promoting social inclusion and community schools in the US and the UK

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  • 英米のコミュニティ・スクールと社会的包摂の可能性
  • エイベイ ノ コミュニティ ・ スクール ト シャカイテキ ホウセツ ノ カノウセイ

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Abstract

Using the methodology of school ethnography, this article reveals the characteristics of full service community schools and extended schools in three countries: the U.S.A, England, and Scotland. The full service community school (FSCS) trend was expanded internationally following a movement to promote such schools in the USA in the 90s, with England and Scotland going so far as to implement national measures to change all their schools to community schools or schools providing extended services. Since then all three countries have invested, through government funding and/or charity foundations, considerable sums of money in such schools with the aim of bringing about poverty reduction and promoting social inclusion. Various services are provided according to the needs of the children, families and communities served, to the extent that school buildings and/or school management have been remodelled in order to allow collaboration with charities and other outside agencies. Such services, some of which will be unfamiliar to Japanese audiences, have even included dental treatment rooms, school-based police, and gang prevention. Since most of the services provided to parents and the wider community are not common in Japan, the article reveals, through detailed case studies of three schools, the adult learning component provided for disadvantaged families and methods of empowering parents. Although full service community schools cannot change the structure of the societies they operate within or reduce poverty and the root causes of poverty itself, the study describes how they can still change the consequences of poverty and transform people’s lives - an experience from which educators in Japan can all learn.

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