The Sociology of the School : A Review

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  • 学校社会学研究の展開
  • 学校社会学研究の展開(教育社会学のパラダイム展開・補遺)
  • ガッコウ シャカイガク ケンキュウ ノ テンカイ キョウイク シャカイガク ノ

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The sociology of the school in Japan has developed, with accumulating monographic studies concerning our own society's schools, as well as eagerly adopting and introducing Western theories and studies in this field. Western paradigms were helpful in our explanation of Japan's educational phenomena, but on the other hand they have interrupted the possible theory-buiding on facts found in our society. The aim of this paper is to review the sociology of the school in Japan, mainly focusing on papers in this Journal since 1950's. In doing so, five stages / loci are distinguished from the viewpoints of main questions and methodologies employed ; (1) The early stage from 50's to 60's : researches on educational opportunities in terms of technical-functionalism ; (2) The second stage from 70's to 80's : researches on universalized secondary education as a "tracking system" (gakkou-kakusa) and its school organization, canalizing students' educational / occupational careers according to their academic achievemnt ; (3) New development of theories on school organization from 80's : shift from bureaucracy-model to lo\ osely-coupled or nationalized myth model ; (4) Recent concern in classroom and curriculum : ethnographic or interactionists' studies, mainly stimulated by the "new sociology of education" or the interpretive approach ; (5) The possibilities of our own theory-building in the sociology of the school distinguished from Western theories. We have failed to consider our edutation and schools from the intrinsic viewpoints of Japan. I conclude with arguing on the direction and method that enables us to build theories in the sociology of the school, that better suits the cultural and social contexts of Japan.


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