Explicitness of Signals Supporting Prose Memory of Older Adults

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Other Title
  • 高齢者の説明文記憶を支援する標識の明示性
  • 高齢者の説明文記憶を支援する標識の明示性--体制化方略の変更とその所産の分析
  • コウレイシャ ノ セツメイブン キオク オ シエンスル ヒョウシキ ノ メイジセイ タイセイカ ホウリャク ノ ヘンコウ ト ソノ ショサン ノ ブンセキ
  • Organizational Strategy Changes and Their Outcomes
  • 体制化方略の変更とその所産の分析

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The present article examines the hypothesis that improving the explicitness of signals by adding visual forms would support organizational strategy changes for prose memory in older adults, initiating a structure strategy and promoting prose memory that is the outcome of the strategy changes. In order to examine the above hypothesis, 90 older adults (mean age=69.77 years) and 90 university students (mean age=21.57 years) were asked to perform a sentence arrangement task, a recall task, and a reconstruction task. The results of these tasks were as follows: (a) Analyzing the frequency of modified arrangements in the organization process as a measure of strategy changes indicated that the older adults' strategy changes improved, depending on the explicitness of the signals, and that aging-related constraints were mitigated.(b) The results confirmed that strategy changes by the older adults that were initiated by the explicitness of the signals caused the effects processes extending to prose memory. Especially, signals with high explicitness improved both the organizational level and the reconstruction level of the older adults (reconstruction level is the degree to which people later are able to reconstruct what was implied). Conversely, signals with low explicitness had little effect on these variables. The present findings suggest that improving the explicitness of signals by adding visual forms would support organization strategy changes and promote prose memory in older adults.


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