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Development and Validation of the Cynicism Questionnaire

  • IZAWA Shuhei
    Graduate School of Human Sciences, Waseda University Research Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
  • NOMURA Shinobu
    School of Human Sciences, Waseda University

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Other Title
  • シニシズム尺度の作成と妥当性の検討
  • シニシズム シャクド ノ サクセイ ト ダトウセイ ノ ケントウ

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Western researchers have emphasized the role of hostility, especially cynicism, in causing coronary heart disease. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Cynicism Questionnaire (CQ). Undergraduates (n=718) and office workers (n=102) completed the prototype CQ that included 13 items based on Barefoot's (1989) categories of cynicism. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed one factor structure with six items. Reliability coefficients of these items (Cronbach's alpha) were .753 and .758 for undergraduates and office workers respectively. The CQ was moderately correlated with other hostility scales. Analysis of the relationship between the CQ, daily stressors, and mood, indicated that participants who scored high on the CQ reported a higher frequency of daily stressors and angry mood. Additionally, a study conducted after 12 weeks indicated that the test-retest reliability of the test was sufficiently high (r=0.704). These results support the validity and reliability of the CQ. Therefore, it is suggested that CQ should be considered as a useful, standardized, measure of cynicism for use in public health-related research.



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