Public Park planning was written into Paris' urban remodelling plan, executed in the middle of the 19th century. This plan exerted pressure on the existing landscape world to change. At the same time, the man responsible for the plan, Alphand, advocated a new garden, in short, the modern garden. What the plan involved, what was modern in these gardens and it's characteristics were considered. As a result, 4 main characteristics came to light. The choice between formal and informal gardens made equally according to the area of land, the aim for naturalness, the garden composition with emphasis on actual use, and lastly the systematization of composition skills. These points outline the character of modern gardens of this period.
Journal of the Japanese Institute of Landscape Architects 55 (5), 115-120, 1991
Japanese Institute of Landscape Architecture