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<b>Modernization in the Conversion of Castle Sites to Parks as Seen in the Park Designs of Nagaoka Yasuhei and Honda Seiroku</b>

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Abstract

<p>This study aims to elucidate the nature of the conversions of castle sites to public parks in modern times, based on specific park designs of two landscape gardeners, Nagaoka Yasuhei and Honda Seiroku. The study covers four parks created on castle sites: Senshu Park (designed in 1896, Kubota Castle site) and Iwate Park (designed in 1906, Morioka Castle site), both of which were designed by Nagaoka; and Tokushima Park (designed in 1905, Tokushima Castle site) and Wakayama Park (designed in 1915, Wakayama Castle site), which were designed by Honda. Considering the timing and circumstances of the conversions, it can be seen that castle site parks have aspects of commemoration as well as expressing the relationship with the state and historical regional characteristics. The more recent the park design, the more destruction of the remaining earthworks and fortifications it involves. Moreover, there is neither evidence that designers referred to archival records of space or uses of space in pre-modern times on the sites nor of any relationship between park design details and such records or uses. At Senshu Park and Iwate Park, both of which were designed comparatively early, destruction of earthworks and fortifications was limited. The fact that each project was implemented faithfully in accordance with its original design means that such designs were accepted by the bodies implementing the projects. At Tokushima Park the layout of the facilities was changed from the original design. The project to improve Wakayama Park brought controversy because it entailed some destruction of the historic scenic beauty at the site. The project proceeded with the objectionable portion of the original design omitted. In the 1910s, with social modernism on the rise, there was a tide of opinion in favor of the preservation of historic sites. In this context there was a debate over whether to accept or reject modernization involving the destruction of historic sites.</p>

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