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The Creation and Maintenance of Landed Farmers Policy and Farmers' Investment Behavior during the Wartime Period : Land Use and Habitual Land Practices in Niigata

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  • 戦時自作農創設維持事業と農民的土地投資 : 新潟の土地利用・慣行に着目して
  • センジ ジサクノウソウセツ イジ ジギョウ ト ノウミンテキ トチ トウシ : ニイガタ ノ トチ リヨウ ・ カンコウ ニ チャクモク シテ

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Abstract

The subject of this paper is to analyze the Creation and Maintenance of Landed Farmers Policy and clarify the motives behind the purchase of land by farmers during the Wartime period (1937-1945). In order to do this, the paper focuses on the land use and habitual land practices in the Kanbara area of Niigata from the perspective of "farmers' land investment". The paper emphasizes the Creation and Maintenance of Landed Farmers Policy as a loan project. To begin with, this paper analyzes the features and history of the land use and habitual land practices in the Kanbara area called "Kenmae", "Kenmae" has existed since the Edo period with characteristics such as the farmland price being cheaper than that of the general land market. This was due to the proximity of the Kanbara area to the lower Shinano river and Agano river causing regular floods. On the basis of the land use and habitual land practices, the motives behind the purchase of farmland was property formation and land improvement during the "second stage" of the Creation and Maintenance of Landed Farmers Policy from 1937 to 1942. They bought land by the use of loans and paid lower prices for land included in "Kenmae". However, the use of loans were limited by the finances of the government. In the "third stage" of the policy from 1943 to 1945, the use of loans by two or more financial institutions or the use of self-finance was permitted. In this phase, farmers wanted to improve their land to increase their yield and diversify their farm products.

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