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A study on the early use of motion pictures in formal education in Japan

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  • 「活動写真」から「映画」への用語の転換に見る映画と学校教育との接近について : 1920年代半ばの関猛の言説の分析から
  • カツドウ シャシン カラ エイガ エ ノ ヨウゴ ノ テンカン ニ ミル エイガ ト ガッコウ キョウイク ト ノ セッキン ニ ツイテ 1920ネンダイ ナカバ ノ セキタケシ ノ ゲンセツ ノ ブンセキ カラ

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Abstract

This paper focuses on the transition of motion pictures to movies being acknowledged as teaching materials in formal education, by analyzing theories and practices of Seki Takeshi, an elementary school teacher and one of the pioneers using motion pictures at schools in Japan. From the early 1900s to the 1920s motion pictures were generally called "katsudo-shashin" and most teachers and educational researchers criticized their popular cultural aspects or amusing factors as they were thought to negatively affect children, and were considered to be an anti-educational event. Seki was the first to use the word "eiga", a new word in his time that means "movies" in Japanese, to separate the popular cultural or amusing aspects of motion pictures. He highlighted the function of movies as a dynamic visual media, and insisted that teachers can use them educationally. As a result, "eiga" was described and acknowledged as new educational media that effectively contributed to formal educational. Through this process, movies (eiga) were found to have a role in formal education in Japan.

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