Educational Media Study to be Related to Culture(<Special Articles>Problems in Educational Media Study)

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  • 文化とのつながりを求める教育メディア研究(<特集論文>教育メディア研究)
  • 文化とのつながりを求める教育メディア研究
  • ブンカ ト ノ ツナガリ オ モトメル キョウイク メディア ケンキュウ

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This paper aims to present new standpoints for conducting studies into educational media which reflect meaningful connections with culture and cultural values. To attain this aim, firstly a critical review of the past progress of educational media study is presented. The initial stage of educational media study is charcterized by "media comparison study," in which many researchers tried to compare the learning effects of a newer medium to that of traditional methods of instruction. When the research conditions were controlled carefully, however, almost no significant difference was found between the two treatments. It is suspected that difference, when found, is due to uncontrolled method and content and/or the novelty effects of newer media. Media attribute research was then expected to overcome the problems of media comparison study. It recommended that we study "attributes" of media and their influences on learning processes. Media attribute research brought new insights into the role of media's symbolic expressions in cultivating corresponding cognitive skills. However, a careful analysis of the research evidence revealed that different symbolic expressions could affect performance similarly. Neither media nor their attributes are the direct cause of learning. Based on these assumptions, this paper suggests that we can not attribute any a priori instructional effects to so called multimedia, and that rather we should study, within the context of cultural values, situational characteristics of using media for learning, learners' motivational conditions when using media, and the cognitive partnership between learners and intellectual tools and its possible negative effects on learners' congnitive degeneration.


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