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  • 学校放送の再建 : 昭和20年~21年


<p>In March 1945, near the end of World War II, radio school broadcasting in Japan was terminated. However, it was revived rather quickly following the war. The war ended on August 15th, 1945 and the first post-war school broadcasts were sent over the airwaves in October that same year. Based upon program content, school broadcasting programs aired between October 1945 and July 1947 can be divided into the following six periods. The Beginning October 1945-November 1945 First Period December 1945-Aprill 1946 Second Period March 1946-July 1946 Third Period September 1946-December 1946 Fourth Period January 1947-March 1947 Fifth Period Aprill 1947-July 1947 NOTE There were no shool programs in August 1946 because of the summer vacation. This paper will deal with the beginning and the first and second periods. The Beginning The Allied Armies occupied Tokyo in September 1945 and the Civil Information and Education Section (CIE)was given supervision of broadcasting and education. Use of those portions of the textbooks which dealt with militarism or war was prohibited by order of the CIE . The teaching of history, geography, and ethics in schools was also prohibited. Even though the publishing of new textbooks was considered , there was no paper available and the printing plants had been demolished. Radio was given the role of compensating for these problems. By direction of the CIE, the Japanese Ministry of Education conducted a survey on conditions of radio facilities in all the elementary schools throughout the country. Furthermore , the CIE ordered that schools be given priority in the distribution of radio receivers The first post-war school broadcasting programs were broadcast from October 22nd, 1945. Repeating the theme of "What is democracy " over and over, th y were directed towards the teachers. The Ministry of Education made these programs required listening for all the teachers in Japan. This period is called " the beginning " because these programs were not directed towards the students. First Period School broadcasts for children started on December 3rd, 1945. Separate programs were prepared for third, fourth, fifth, and sixth grade elementary students as well as for students ( 12 year olds ) in the higher elementary schools. The contents of these programs included lectures by people of prominence, reading of student compositions, of famous persons, reading of stories, for children and so on. In addition, one series of broadcasts included many programs well worth noting. They were titled " Shinso wa k da" or " This is the Truth. " These programs were broadcast for home listening during the evenings and rebroadcast for school use during the day. These programs exposed the atrocities carried out during the Second World War by Japanese soldiers in Mainland China and the Philippines. This series was broadcast under the strict direction of the Supreme Command for the Allied Powers in order to inform Japan's teachers and children of the facts behind their entrapment within a state of wretehedness by their past militaristic leaders and those who had positively cooperated with them, as well as by those who passively gave their tacit approval to the others' actions. Broadcasting was also used to teach the discussion method of instruction. Programs on why the discussion method was necessary were prepared for school broadcasts directed towards the children and programs on the role of the discussion method were repeatedly included in sehool broadcasts for teaehers. It is thought that the CIE attached great importance to the discussion method for the purpose of democratizing the teachers of Japan. Second Period The time slots for school broadcasts were increased by fifteen minutes per day from May 1946. In other words, school programs for elementary school children were broadcast daily, Monday through Saturday, from 10:15 to</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>



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