[Updated on Apr. 18] Integration of CiNii Articles into CiNii Research

Designing Drill-and-Practice CAI Courseware to Supplement TV Programs for Second Language Instruction

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  • テレビ放送番組による外国語教育を補うドリル型CAIの構築について

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From the standpoint of instructional design, this article reviews what should be considered when a computer-based drill is prepared to supplement a TV language program. Three main topics discussed are: (1) Defining the characteristics of the instructional goals by examining taxonomy of learning objectives; (2) Assigning the roles of the TV program and CAI courseware in the flow of instructional events; and (3) Deciding the basic structure of the drill-and-practice CAI courseware. First, the author suggests the learning objectives to be analyzed using the classification schemes concerning not only (a) the four basic skills of language learning: reading, writing, listening, and speaking and (b) the linguistic viewpoints of vocabulary (semantics) and grammar (syntax), but also (c) the learning outcomes of verbal information versus intellectual skills, by defining the kinds of desired learning outcomes, the suitable conditions can then be suggested using models of instructional design. Second, the flow of a lesson is interpreted in terms of the necessary conditions of learning (i. e., Gagne's nine events of instruction), so as to decide which conditions are to be provided by the TV program, and which are by the CAI courseware. Three roles of CAI are proposed to be: (a) recalling prerequisite information and skills before watching the TV program; (b) providing individual practices and feedback after information presentation by the TV program; and (c) providing spaced practices to enhance retention and transfer. Finally, designs of an introduction display, practice cycles, and an ending display are discussed as the basic components of the drill-and-practice CAI courseware. Factors that determine the characteristics of the practice cycles are further examined, which include the drill items to form a set of practice session, criteria for the mastery, mechanisms for selection and deletion of items depending on the student's responses, modes of practice and types of responses, and strategies for feedback messages.




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