Techniques of Formative Evaluation for CAI Courseware Design and Development

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  • CAI教材の設計開発における形成的評価の技法について
  • CAI キョウザイ ノ セッケイ カイハツ ニ オケル ケイセイテキ ヒョウカ

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This paper provides an overview of formative evaluation in the context of the systematic design and development of stand-alone instructional materials with a special emphasis on the application of various techniques of formative evaluation to CAI courseware development. The historical advancement of formative evaluation concepts and techniques is first described from the introduction of the term by Scriven in 1967 to later works by Markle, Baker, Burkman, Palmer, Komoski, Nathenson and Henderson, and Dick and Carey. Next, the reasons for conducting formative evaluation are listed: (1) to improve the effectiveness of the materials using student data, (2) to contribute to the formation of instructional theories and models, (3) to keep the materials consistent with the entry behavior and characteristics of the target audience, (4) to provide a training opportunity for instructional designers, and (5) to facilitate later adoption of the materials. After the three-stage procedure of formative evaluation is briefly introduced using the model by Dick and Carey (1985), potential problems with instructional materials and methods of possible revisions are provided in order to link formative evaluation data and consequent revisions. It is pointed out that although the general model of formative evaluation can be applied to CAI development, deliberate attention should be paid to the unique capabilities of the computer as an instructional medium. The discussion includes: (1) timing for conducting formtive evaluation in relation to cost effectiveness of the production as well as the prediction of the effectiveness of the final product, and (2) techniques for evaluating CAI courseware that has adaptive structure to individual learner differences. Finally, an alternative 3 - step approach to develop CAI courseware is proposed for the practitioners with limited resources.


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