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A Fundamental Study on the Effects of Pictures in Language (L2 English) Education


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  • 外国語(英語)教育における画像の効果に関する基礎的研究
  • ガイコクゴ エイゴ キョウイク ニ オケル ガゾウ ノ コウカ ニ カンスル

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<p>Little empirical research has been conducted on the effects of pictures in the field of language education (including L2 English education), though it is possible to use various kinds of pictures at any point in the flow of courseware. In order to develop effective courseware using pictures in micro-computers, the effects of pictures should first of all be empirically investigated. The primary purpose of this study was to compare the effects between learning with pictures and that without pictures. The second purpose was to clarify which factors of pictures deemed important : 1) construction. (Pictures showing background information on the prose vs. ones showing partial information) ; 2) style. (Line drawings vs. photographs) 3) Location. (Pictures before the prose vs. after the prose). Before the experiment, the prose, "A Strange Shopping Center" was selected from an English textbook for junior high school students. The prose consisted of about 250 words. Two black-and-white pictures used in the textbook were chosen, and two black-and-white line drawings were made based on each picture. Combining the elements of style, construction, and location of pictures, nine types of learning materials were prepared, as well as material without pictures. The experiment was conducted in July of 1988 with 347 junior high school students in Niigata Prefecture, who were divided into 10 groups using the 10 different types of learning materials. As a pretest, the results of their mid-term English examinations were used. The subjects read the prose, followed by the posttest (which was, in effect, a comprehension test). It consisted of twelve multiple-choice questions. Finally, subjects were asked to complete an eight-item questionnaire. The results of the comprehension test were analyzed by the t-test, ANOVA, and Scheffe's test, while the results of the questionnaire were analyzed by the chi-square test. After the experiment, ANOVA was conducted on the points of the post test, showing no significant difference. So, the ten groups proved to be comparable. Secondly, ANOVA and Scheffe's test were conducted on the results of the pretest. There was significant difference among the ten groups, but it was not clear which factor was the most important. However, comparing the effects between learning with pictures and that without pictures by the t-test, the difference of means was significant, demonstrating that learning with pictures was much more effective than that without pictures. Thirdly, the t-test was administered to compare the learning effects of these different factors of pictures. It was found that : 1) When comparing the effects between the pictures of background information and those of partial information, no significant difference was seen, which proves that the construction factor did not affect students' understanding of the prose ; 2) When comparing the effects between line drawings and photographs, the difference of means was significant, proving that photographs were more effective than pictures in helping students understand the prose ; 3) When comparing the effects of the location of pictures, the difference of means was not significant, proving that the location factor did not affect the students' understanding of the prose. Fourthly, after combining the factors stated above, ANOVA and Scheffe's test were employed. From these results, the subject group using photographs learned more than the subject group not using pictures. Also, the subject group using background photographs learned more than the subject group not using pictures. Thus, we can conclude that photographs seemed to be most effective. Finally, the chi-square test was administered on the results of the questionnaire. Though subjects felt pictures were not so helpful in answering the posttest, they showed positive attitudes toward the existence of pictures in the prose.</p><p>(View PDF for the rest of the abstract.)</p>



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