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Effects of visual punctuations on learning about video tape recording materials in the social studies

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  • 社会科ビデオ教材の学習における視覚的句読点の効果
  • シャカイカ ビデオ キョウザイ ノ ガクシュウ ニ オケル シカクテキ クトウ

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Abstract

In order to facilitate elementary school children's learning about video tape recording materials in the subject area of the social studies, this study tried to insert visual punctuations into the video so that the child might take clearer cognition of and more interest in it. The visual punctuation used in this study was one cut which involved a conjunctive word "Soshite" ("AND" in English) or a humorous figure representing a sea-horse that was previously rated as most humorous by 120 third grade children. In the experiment, the other 84 third graders who differed in academic achievement were randomly assigned to one of four conditions in which visual punctuations involved the words only (W), the picture only (P), both (WP), or none (control). Ss were presented the same video under the different conditions of visual punctuations and asked to say either "interesting" or "not interesting" by pressing a button with intervals of twenty-seconds during watching the video. Immediately after such experimental session, Ss received questionaire which tested their recognition of several scenes in the video and examined their affective responses to it. And one-week later Ss recieved the same recognition test again. Main results were as follows: (a) Low academic achievers pressed the button of "interesting" more frequently under P condition than under control condition, but high achievers did not show such significant difference. (b) Ss performed better on recognition test under WP, P and W condition than under control condition, while neither sex nor ability factors had main effects and interactions. These significant differences among conditions became more striking and the interaction between sex and visual punctuation was also detected when percents of correct rejections in recognition were computed, with boys showing means of .710, .638, .500 and .521 under WP, P, W and control condition respectively, and girls showing means of .669, .575, .654 and .494 under each above condition. (c) There were no marked differences among conditions on children's ratings about 13 affective aspects of the video except only two, "amusingness" and "brightness". With both aspects P condition produced more negative ratings than the other three conditions. However it seemed reliable to think that visual punctuations had less effect on Ss' sensitivity to the affective aspects of the video. These results suggest that visual punctuations are useful for visual presentation of materials in the screen education. It is especially recommended to use visual punctuations when a schoolteacher originally make up video tape recording materials instead of the ready-made materials such as TV programs.

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