Innovation in Organization and Religious Expressions in a Tariqa : With Special Reference to the Jazuliya Shadhiliya in Contemporary Egypt

  • ARAI Kazuhiro
    Graduate School of Asian and African Area Studies, Kyoto University

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  • タリーカにおける組織的革新性と宗教的感情の発露 : 現代エジプトにおけるジャーズーリーヤ・シャーズィリーヤ教団の事例を通じて
  • タリーカ ニ オケル ソシキテキ カクシンセイ ト シュウキョウテキ カンジョウ ノ ハツロ ゲンダイ エジプト ニ オケル ジャーズーリーヤ シャーズィリーヤ キョウダン ノ ジレイ オ ツウジテ

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In contemporary Egypt, there are at least 78 tariqa authorized by the National Sufi Supreme Council. The purpose of this essay is to elucidate the actual conditions and activities of one of the official tariqa, Jazuliya Shadhiliya. Jazuliya Shadhiliya has its origin in 1952 when Jabir Husayn Ahmad al-Jazuli (1913-92) began his activities in Cairo. Now, his son Salim Jabir Husayn Ahmad al-Jazuli (1952-), who works as the president of an advertising agency, has become the second shaykh. Incidentally, this tariqa was authorized in 1995. The reason for having chosen Jazuliya Shadhiliya from a number of tariqa as the subject of study is that it is a new type of tariqa adapted for modern society, mainly influenced by the changes in the living environment of the urban middle and upper middle class. Jazuliya Shadhiliya is established on a division-of-work system in which the shaykh is the principal figure and the other members are organized respectively into groups according to the blue, green and white, each of which is assigned a specific role. This has led to an increased efficiency in organization and management. Moreover, the active participation of women, the sale of various religious goods corresponding to the consumer market, the use of various media such as the internet, and the abundant use of modern technology such as large speakers and video cameras also reflect adaptation to modern society. Furthermore, besides modernization and administrative changes, it is worth remarking that the emotional expressions and bold physical movements associated with the trance-like states achieved in prayer are welcomed and encouraged, although this has been strongly criticized by the modern Muslim intelligentsia. Although such free expression of emotion is commonly seen in the traditional tariqa, modern tariqa tend to strongly discourage such behavior. By investigating the details of Jazuliya Shadhiliya in which reside both traditional and modern aspects we may understand the significance of Jazuliya Shadhiliya in contemporary society. The primary reason that Jazuliya Shadhiliya was able to achieve this innovation is the open-mindedness and versatile accomplishments of the founding shaykh. The founder of Jazuliya Shadhiliya was active in his many leadership roles : as a government official who worked for a typical modern bureaucracy, a religious advisor, a saint with the power to perform miracles, the object of mystical worship, a liaison to the community and a father-figure to a closely knit and affectionate community. It can be concluded from this study that the founder and core figure of this religious group being a modern and multitalented man was a considerable influence in the success of Jazuliya Shadhiliya in uniting many features within a single religious group. That is to say, such a shaykh has been able to fulfill the religious needs of the contemporary urban middle class. He has attended to the desire for a more cooperative form of religion which has emerged from the collapse of the traditional community. He has also addressed the desire for a different doctrinal study from the intellectual system rooted in the tradition, which those educated in a secular educational system can respond to as well. Finally, this new system addresses the desire for a new religious style adapted to the lifestyle changes of today's consumerist society.


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