Mapping Contact Potential Differences with Noncontact Atomic Force Microscope Using Resonance Frequency Shift versus Sample Bias Voltage Curves

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Abstract

We have measured cantilever resonance frequency versus sample bias voltage and generated frequency vs bias (fV) curves using an ultrahigh-vacuum noncontact atomic force microscope (UHV NC-AFM). Using the fV data, we calculated the contact potential difference (CPD) between the tip and the sample. These CPD measurements were compared with those that were directly observed with a scanning Kelvin probe force microscope (SKPM) on the same atomically resolved area of the sample using a UHV-AFM. The CPD values obtained by both methods were similar, however, it was difficult to obtain CPD values that agreed precisely on the atomic scale.

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