Legal Systems and Applications of Variance in City of Toronto,canada

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  • カナダ・トロント市におけるヴァリアンス(Variances)の制度と運用
  • カナダ・トロント市におけるヴァリアンス(Variances)の制度と運用--北米のゾーニングにおける特例的許可制度に関する研究
  • カナダ トロントシ ニ オケル ヴァリアンス Variances ノ セイド ト ウンヨウ ホクベイ ノ ゾーニング ニ オケル トクレイテキ キョカ セイド ニ カンスル ケンキュウ
  • 北米のゾーニングにおける特例的許可制度に関する研究
  • A Study on Special or Exceptional Permit System under the North American Zoning Control

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"Variance" is a classic type of special permit system, in North American, to grant relief from strict application of the zoning by-law regulations, under certain conditions. Variances are only limited, in most cities, to sites where strict observation of the by-law will cause "unnecessary hardships" to the land owners and/or to ease dimensional (not use) regulations, whereas Ontario Planning Act in Canada, has no such limitations. In this thesis, we investigate the legal systems and applications of variance in City of Toronto, Ontario. This shows that variance gives flexibility to the zoning system, and the differences of the judgment between the quasi-judicial bodies of City of Toronto which permit the variance applications, and of the Province of Ontario which re-examine the applications.


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