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  • 博物館の沿革からみた日本の国立・県立博物館の整備過程
  • ハクブツカン ノ エンカク カラ ミタ ニホン ノ コクリツ ・ ケンリツ ハクブツカン ノ セイビ カテイ

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 Since museum law established in 1951, many museums has been established as a central facility of social education policy in many local governments. The public museum regularly reviews the exhibition policy and maintenance the facility trying to improve the public services, but more than it is influenced by changes in the national museum policies and social situation. Recently, something difficult to maintain the current number of museums has arisen due to the declining population, deteriorating fiscal conditions, etc. Some of the public museums are being rebuilt. In this paper, by analyzing the maintenance process for the public museums in Japan based on the information of the "enkaku" meaning history, we clarify the history of the improvement of the museum in Japan and provide effective knowledge on the maintenance of the museum in the future.<br><br> Enkaku is one of the information that is open to the public on the official museum's website, and the history of maintenance is stated. In this research, we will consider based on the maintenance information written in the enkaku. First, we extracted contents written about maintenance. Next, we drew chronological tables based on the extracted information, and this is analyzed. In Chapter3, we will analyze the facility maintenance and in Chapter 4 we will analyze the name change. In chapter 5 we try to classify museum maintenance processes from the results of chapters 3 and 4.<br><br> We found the following contents.<br> 1) In the 1970s there was a construction rush in the national and prefectural museums, after the period of high economic growth and bubble years, the number of museum established is decreasing now.<br> 2) Maintenance contents of facilities could be divided mainly into rebuilding and relocation, extension and renovation, establish an annex.<br> 3) Utilizing existing facilities is a well-established maintenance method, some of which preserve historical buildings, and others that effectively utilize idle facilities in recent years.<br> 4) There are three major types of museum's name(Type.AM, Type.AAM, Type.ADM). Before the 1960s, there were many Type. AM, and gradually the number of Type.ADM increased since the 1970s.<br> 5) We found four patterns of name change and these were reflected by changes in the museum's management policy.<br> 6) From the analysis results of chapters 3 and 4, we grasped the type of maintenance process of eleven patterns. These patterns and the age of establishment are related. Many old museums have been often relocated and rebuilt, and more the name of Type.AM.<br> Meanwhile, in recent years there has been a tendency that large maintenance is not done and the name of Type.ADM is large.<br><br> Thus, this research clarified part of the maintenance process of the public museums in Japan from the relationship between facility development and name change. So in the modern era when the population declines, it is necessary to consider whether the current number of museums is appropriate for each prefecture or in areas larger than the prefecture, and in some cases it is necessary to consider contraction and consolidation.



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