Evaluation of the sensitization potential of volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds using the direct peptide reactivity assay

  • Kawakami Tsuyoshi
    Division of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Health Sciences
  • Isama Kazuo
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Teikyo Heisei University
  • Ikarashi Yoshiaki
    Division of Environmental Chemistry, National Institute of Health Sciences
  • Jinno Hideto
    Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Meijo University

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<p>The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitization potential of 82 compounds classified as volatile and/or semi-volatile organic compounds using the direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA), given that these chemical compounds have been detected frequently and at high concentrations in a national survey of Japanese indoor air pollution and other studies. The skin sensitization potential of 81 of these compounds was evaluable in our study; one compound co-eluted with cysteine peptide and was therefore not evaluable. Twenty-five of the evaluated compounds were classified as positive. Although all glycols and plasticizers detected frequently and at high concentrations in a national survey of Japanese indoor air pollution were negative, hexanal and nonanal, which are found in fragrances and building materials, tested positive. Monoethanolamine and 1,3-butanediol, which cause clinical contact dermatitis, and several compounds reported to have weak sensitization potential in animal studies, were classified as negative. Thus, it was considered that compounds with weak sensitization potential were evaluated as negative in the DPRA. Although the sensitization potential of the formaldehyde-releasing preservative bronopol has been attributed to the release of formaldehyde (a well-known contact allergen) by its degradation, its degradation products—bromonitromethane and 2-bromoethanol—were classified as positive, indicating that these degradation products also exhibit sensitization potential. The compounds that tested positive in this study should be comprehensively assessed through multiple toxicity and epidemiological studies.</p>

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