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The Diachronic Change of the Cases Governed by √<i>brū</i> in Sanskrit

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Other Title
  • ヴェーダから紀元前後のサンスクリットにおけるbrū「言う」の格支配の通時的変化
  • ヴェーダから紀元前後のサンスクリットにおけるbru「言う」の格支配の通時的変化
  • ヴェーダ カラ キゲン ゼンゴ ノ サンスクリット ニ オケル bru 「 イウ 」 ノ カクシハイ ノ ツウジテキ ヘンカ

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Abstract

<p>For this paper I examined all cases used with √brū in the Ṛgveda, Atharva-Veda, Śatapatha-Brāhmaṇa, Rāmāyaṇa, Buddhacarita, Mahābhaṣya, Pañcatantra, Abhijñānaśākuntala and Hitopadeśa. I found that the listener denoted when √brū is used shows a diachronic change from dative to accusative.</p><p>Three steps to this change of case with √brū may be recognized. First, the listener is expressed in the dative and the content of the speech is expressed with the accusative, direct speech, or the like. Second, the listener is expressed with the dative when the content of the speech is expressed by the accusative, and the accusative when the content is not a noun phrase with a case. Third, the listener is expressed with the accusative and the content is expressed with the accusative, direct speech and so on.</p><p>Last but not least, in Classical Sanskrit for the case governed by √brū both listener and text are in the accusative case, which merely occured in the Ṛgveda and cannot be found in the Śatapatha-Brāhmaṇa. The double accusative construction is generally described as an archaic construction in the process of disappearing. However, as far as √brū is concerned, the double accusative construction is not in the process of disappearing, but became a fixed expression.</p>

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