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Traditional and Institutional Characteristics in Rural Society of Tana Toraja

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  • トラジャ農村社会の伝統的・制度的特徴
  • トラジャ ノウソン シャカイ ノ デントウテキ セイドテキ トクチョウ

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Abstract

type:Article

Toraja is called society of agriculture, where people are engaged in rice farming. Modernization in Republic of Indonesia and the international situation have affected Tana Toraja. In the village, more farmers want to have a cash income through introducing tractors instead of payment in kind. The number of tourists has dropped sharply due to the terrorism, by contrast, the population in Tana Toraja has been increasing. Rice supply doesn't meet demand considering its lay of the land. However, I assume that this is the tendency to change into the agricultural society. Their process of the farming paddy fields is similar to that of Japan. The conventional allotment of the harvest is fifty-fifty between landowners and tenant farmer. Farmers are paid in proportion to their labor of planting or reaping paddies. For planting they are paid equally, and for reaping paid depending on their labor. Tana Toraja has paddy fields called "Uma Mana", "Uma Tongkonan", which play an important role in the society, and crops are used for rituals. Buffalos and pigs are traditionally valuable animals, and their prices are fixed conventionally. Buffalos are more important and people's inheritance is decided in proportion to the number of buffalos delivered. This characterizes Toraja. Buffalos are livestock for agricultural society. They form foundation of the value of human as money. Therefore, they play a major part in the society. The traditional sense of value unifies agriculture society in Tana Toraja. Methodical and traditional as it has been observed to be, it is practically systematic.

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