Member composition and organizational management of nonprofits through a comparison between volunteer, working, and mixed organization type

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  • NPOのメンバー構成と組織運営 : ボランティア型・就労型・混合型の比較を通じて
  • NPO ノ メンバー コウセイ ト ソシキ ウンエイ : ボランティアガタ シュウロウガタ コンゴウガタ ノ ヒカク オ ツウジテ
  • NPOのメンバー構成と組織運営 : ボランティア型就労型混合型の比較を通じて

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Some nonprofit organizations have unpaid volunteers supporting many of their activities, whereas others employ mostly paid professionals. In this paper, we focus on these differences in member composition and analyze nonprofit organizations on the basis of quantitative survey data. Nonprofits are classified into three types : "volunteer type," where all members are unpaid volunteers, "working type," where all staff are paid workers, and "mixed type," where both volunteers and paid staff are included. We will examine the characteristics of each type and the differences in organizational management. Our study found the following : (1) While the volunteer type is mainly dominated by elderly men, the working type includes many young members, with the majority being women. (2) Volunteer-type and mixed-type organizations tend to be inferior to working-type organizations in terms of the quality of human services. However, in both volunteer- and mixed-type organizations, those who were originally beneficiaries of the service more often participate in organizational activities, and there is a tendency to create public involvement among beneficiaries that goes beyond the simple customer. (3) While the volunteer type usually has a high degree of autonomy in organizational activities, it faces many financial difficulties. In contrast, the working type tends to have low autonomy because of its high financial dependence on the government, but it has relatively large funds. Nonprofits often face the dilemma of finding a balance between improving their service quality and creating diverse public involvement. They must also find a compromise between securing a stable financial base and maintaining autonomous activities. Future research on nonprofit organizations should seek to resolve these dilemmas.


  • 評論・社会科学

    評論・社会科学 (134), 83-106, 2020-09-30

    The Association of Social Studies, Doshisha University

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