The genealogy of disciplina : Hugh of Saint-Victor’s De institutione nouitiorum and «le pédagogique»

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  • Disciplinaの系譜学 : サン・ヴィクトルのフーゴー『修錬者の教導』を読む
  • Disciplina ノ ケイフガク : サン ・ ヴィクトル ノ フーゴー 『 シュウレンシャ ノ キョウドウ 』 オ ヨム

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Abstract

There has been considerable discussion concerning the conclusion of Philippe Ariès’ Centuries of Childhood (1962). According to Ariès, “medieval civilization had no idea of education,” with some medievalists (e. g. Pierre Riché), criticizing and opposing this hasty thesis. They claimed that there were abundant historical sources discussing education in medieval monasteries, schools, and courts. However, the question remains whether such sources truly expressed educatio in Medieval Latin while discussing pedagogical issues.  The present study analyzes De institutione nouitiorum, written by Hugh of St. Victor (ca. 1096-1141) in order to answer the question, and provides sufficient evidence to insist that it was not educatio, but disciplina which formulated «le pédagogique» throughout the Middle Ages. Taking this matter into account, it will be possible to understand Ariès’ proposition in the context of historical lexicology. For instance, disciplina was the comprehensive concept of Hugh’s De institutione, which presents a guide regarding novices’ behavior and conduct ― that is, their way of speaking, gesturing, clothing, eating, and so on. He never used the word educatio, although he treated pedagogical subjects in the same manner as modern writers. The terminology of pedagogy was utterly different between medieval and modern civilizations. It was not until early modern times that educatio was generally used in a pedagogical context.  In the first half of this paper, the historical transition of the usage of disciplina since antiquity is investigated so as to provide a basis for reading Hugh’s De institutione.  First, the usage of disciplina is chronologically clarified in classical Latin literature. The word disciplina is derived from discere, meaning “to learn”. We can find the earliest uses of this word in the works of Plautus in the meaning of life-style or way of conduct. Cicero translated παιδεία into disciplina thereafter in introducing Greek culture to Rome. He also combined disciplina with ancestral customs (mos maiorum) and added moral value to its meaning. Disciplina represented the order and constitution of the republic with that of the Ciceronian. In Seneca’s Moral Epistles, disciplina signified a moral lesson or exercise for the soul. Church Fathers developed and enhanced the usage of disciplina in these meanings.  Second this study explores how early Christianity used disciplina in the Bible translation and in terms of patrology. At the outset, it should be emphasized that most examples of παιδεία in the Greek version of the Bible were replaced with disciplina (in the Latin version). Moreover, παιδεία in Septuagint corresponded to the term musar in the Hebrew Bible, which means correction and chastening. The new and strange usage of disciplina derived from Hebrew was invented, and which was previously unknown to ancient Romans. Augustine asserted in his Expositions on the Psalm that the word disciplina was equivalent to παιδεία, and that it must be understood for Christians as instruction through tribulations (per molestias eruditio). According to him, the Church is a domus disciplinae ― a house of discipline. For the first few centuries, disciplina christiana was established by fathers such as Tertullian, Cyprian, Augustine, and so on. It was soon adopted to monastic rules, such as the rule of St. Augustine and the rule of St. Benedict, who incorporated it into the motto “humility and obedience”.  In the second half of this paper, we attempt to comprehend and analyze De institutione from the perspective of the development of disciplina christiana in medieval monasteries. Hugh was a Canon Regular in the Abbey of St. Victor at Paris, founded around 1113. His De institutione was a useful manual for monastic life, with many copies having been fabricated all over Western Europe. It was the most representative book of disciplina in the High Middle Ages. It is evident from this study that Hugh never used educatio i

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