Fazang and the <i>Ratnagotravibhāga</i>: With a Focus on the Theory of Tathatā (真如), Gotra (種姓) and Xingqi (性起)

  • Li Zijie
    日本学術振興会外国人特別研究員・博士〈仏教学〉

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  • 法蔵と『究竟一乗宝性論』――その真如・種姓・性起説について――
  • ホウゾウ ト 『 キュウキョウ イチジョウ ホウセイロン 』 : ソノ シンニョ ・ スジョウ ・ セイキセツ ニ ツイテ

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Abstract

<p>It is clear that Fazang 法蔵 (643–712), as the third founder of the Chinese Huayan sect, received tremendous influence from his teacher Zhiyan 智儼 (602–668). Zhiyan was familiar with the doctrines of the Dilun and Shelun schools, and some consider Zhiyan as a scholar of the Shelun school. We can assume Fazang too deeply researched the doctrines of the Dilun and Shelun schools. Thus, it is quite possible that Fazang utilized the doctrines of the Dilun school in order to structure his Huayan teachings. In previous discussions of the Buddhist scriptures which influenced Fazang, attention was always paid to several classical Chinese translations, such as the Huayan jing 華厳経, Daśabhūmika 十地経論, Laṅkāvatāra 楞伽経, and Dasheng qi xin lun 大乗起信論. In this paper, I want to focus on the Ratnagotravibhāga 究竟一乗宝性論. In other words, my purpose is to reassess the influence on Fazang and the position in his thought on the Ratnagotravibhāga, which has been neglected by scholars of East Asian Buddhist Studies.</p><p>Fazang established his theory of jiaopan (教判) in the Huayan wujiao zhang 華厳五教章. Regarding his interpretation of zhongjiao and dunjiao, his explanations concerning tathatā (真如) and gotra (種姓) are the most important. It is interesting that Fazang, who utilizes the Ratnagotravibhāga, emphasizes the independence of zhongjiao and dunjiao through explaining tathatā and gotra. According to the interpretation of Fazang, the theory of xingqi 性起 of Huayan is related to the arising and cause of zhenru foxing 真如仏性 in all beings. In addition, he considers the Ratnagotravibhāga the foundation of this theory. We can find that a passage of the Śrīmālā-sūtra is quoted by the Ratnagotravibhāga if we examine the regarding portion, but there is no term equivalent to zhenru foxing in the Sanskrit text. As is widely known, the theory of xingqi is one of the roots and foundations for Fazang’s Huayan ideas. We can recognize the importance of the Chinese translation of the Ratnagotravibhāga through this case.</p><p>In addition, the Sanskrit text of the Ratnagotravibhāga states: “There is light of tathāgata in the bodies of beings including mithyātva 邪定聚. It will become the merits and great roots of beings and magnify great dharmas in the future.” According to Takasaki, this is the quote of the Sarvabuddhaviṣayāvatārajñānālokālaṃkāra 智光明荘厳経. In contrast, the Chinese translation clearly states that this as a quote of the Avataṃsakasūtra 大方広仏華厳経. It is extremely interesting that Fazang takes the standpoint of the Chinese translation of the Ratnagotravibhāga in order to demonstrate that the Avataṃsakasūtra is the real resource and foundation of the xingqi theory of his Huayan ideas. However, it is incredible that in the extant Chinese translation of the Avataṃsakasūtra, we find no portion similar to the quote above. That is to say, it is very possible that Fazang mainly utilized the Chinese translation of the Ratnagotravibhāga, instead of the Sanskrit text, and the Chinese translation of the Avataṃsakasūtra, to demonstrate his xingqi theory of Huayan.</p>

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