Echo Metamorphosed : Narcissus and Twelfth Night

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  • エコーの変身 : 『ナルキッソス』と『十二夜』における
  • エコー ノ ヘンシン : 『 ナルキッソス 』 ト 『 ジュウニヤ 』 ニ オケル

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Abstract

This paper is intended as an investigation regarding the metamorphoses of Echo in early modern English plays: Narcissus: A Twelfe Night Merriment (Narcissus, 1603) and Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night, or What You Will (TN, 1600–01). Narcissus, which was enacted as an imitation of “Yule-tide mummeries” (Lee xiii) at St. John’s College, Oxford, on Twelfth Night, 1603, provides a paradigm in which Eccho, differing from Ovid’s Echo in Metamorphoses (AD 1–8), functions as an agent who “enables characters to respond, to see that love requires echoing instead of narcissism” (Bate 149). While Viola as Echo in TN also impresses upon characters the importance of responsive love, she acts as “bias” (5.1.256) which deflects characters’ passions in unanticipated directions. The blazon as a rhetorical device, which anatomizes the “sweet beauties best” of “ladies dead, and lovely knights” (Sonnet 106, 4–5), arouses a homoerotic and homosocial desire in Narcissus; In TN, Olivia’s anatomy of Viola by virtue of “fivefold blazon” (1.5.285) also reflects a homoerotic desire, however, her anatomy of “sweet beauties best” is deeply associated with the anxiety of fragmentation permeated in this festive comedy.

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