Preliminary Research on the Dantapoṇasikkhāpada of the <i>Vinayapiṭaka</i>: Focusing on Methods of Food Acquisition Acceptable for Monks

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  • 不受食学処(Dantapoṇasikkhāpada)に関する予備的研究―比丘に許される食物取得―
  • 不受食学処(Dantaponasikkhapada)に関する予備的研究 : 比丘に許される食物取得
  • フジュショクガク ショ(Dantaponasikkhapada)ニ カンスル ヨビテキ ケンキュウ : ビク ニ ユルサレル ショクモツ シュトク

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<p>The Pātimokkha consists of prohibitive rules, with the exception of the sekhiyā section, which is a guide to etiquette in daily life. The Suttavibhaṅga, the old commentary on the Pātimokkha, also comprises prohibitive components. There is little mention in the Pātimokkha and Suttavibhaṅga of what monks can do; therefore, it is difficult to know which behaviors, in relation to clothing, food, and housing, are acceptable based on these texts.</p><p>This is also true of the Dantapoṇasikkhāpada, which I discuss in this paper. While the Dantapoṇasikkhāpada prohibits monks from eating anything other than alms food, the Suttavibhaṅga focuses on providing a precise explanation of this prohibitive rule. However, when we refer to the monastic texts more widely, the acceptable ways of acquiring food that do not conflict with this rule become visible to us. For example, in the Bhesajjakkhandhaka, we can find an exception to the rule. In addition, the Samantapāsādikā (Sp)’s commentary on the rule includes numerous cases related to how monks should acquire food.</p><p>In this paper, I will examine the legitimate methods of food acquisition based on these texts. This paper is only a first step undertaking a more complete body of research; consequently, the results of the examination will be limited to the following four points:</p><p>1) It is essential for monks to receive (paṭiggaṇhāti) food from others in order for them to eat. According to Sp, receiving food is acceptable under the following five conditions: a) the food is sufficiently small and lightweight for it to be lifted by a man of average body strength; b) both the donor and the recipient are in close proximity (hatthapāsa) to each other; c) the donor demonstrates an attitude of offering (abhihāra) (e.g. by bowing to the recipient); d) gods, people, or animals donate food with “body” (kāya), “what is connected with body” (kāyapaṭibaddha), or “releasing” (nissaggiya); e) the monk receives the food with “body” or “what is connected with body.”</p><p>2) According to the Suttavibhaṅga’s commentary on the Dantapoṇasikkhāpada, collecting food for the purpose of eating it oneself is a dukkaṭa offense, but according to the Bhesajjakkhandhaka, collecting food for oneself is permissible when it is extremely difficult to obtain. However, consuming food that has not been received from “one who makes things legal” (kappiyakāraka) is not permissible.</p><p>3) It is permissible to collect food to give to others and for purposes other than eating. However, it is necessary to receive food from others when they change their minds and want to eat it themselves.</p><p>4) Because the Sp’s commentary on the Dantapoṇasikkhāpada does not address the pros and cons of “gleaning” (uñcha), it is uncertain whether this practice contradicts the Dantapoṇasikkhāpada. However, the possibility exists that the Dantapoṇasikkhāpada permits monks to glean.</p>


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