Viewing sepsis and autoimmune disease in relation with infection and NETs-formation

    Medical Device & Deagnostic Dept., Fuso Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd.
  • OKUI Akira
    Research & Development Center, Fuso Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd.
  • HORIUCHI Yoshiyuki
    Research & Development Center, Fuso Pharmaceutical Industries, Ltd.

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  • 感染とNETs(neutrophil extracellular traps)形成の関わりから敗血症と自己免疫疾患を眺める

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<p>Neutrophil has been widely recognized as body’s first line of defence against pathogens. NETosis was first reported in 2004 as a programmed cell death of neutrophil and distinguished from apoptosis and necrosis. This phenomenon has been already observed in both basic and clinical research. NETosis is induced by various stimulants such as PMA, IL-8, DAMPs/PAMPs, bacteria, and antigen-antibody complex including self-antibody such as ANCA. It is known that there are two types of NETosis following bacterial infections. Although both of them have the ability to capture and kill bacteria, they also damage the host tissues. The inhibition of the NETs-related enzymes prevents the NETs formation at that time. The production of O2 from respiratory burst of neutrophils triggers NETs formation. In the first type of NETosis, neutrophils are completely collapsed, while in the second type, they maintain the morphology and the ability of phagocytosis. However, bacteria can escape from NETs by degrading NETs with their secreting nucleases. Thus the animal models of infection, using these bacteria, oftentimes suffer from severe infectious diseases. Human CGD (Chronic Granulomatosis Disease) patients who do not have Nox2 are immunocompromised, and highly susceptible to infection due to the defect of NETs formation. On the other hand, SLE patients are unable to break down the NETs as their serum inhibits the DNase1 activity, which results in autoantibody generation against NETs as well as self-DNA. It is getting clear that there is a relationship between inflammatory diseases, including infectious diseases, Sepsis and autoimmune diseases, and NETs. Therefore, it is important to re-evaluate the inflammatory disorders from NETs’ perspective, and to incorporate the emerging concepts for better understanding the mechanisms involved.</p>



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