Effectiveness of Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for Parents of Individuals with "Hikikomori"(<Special Issue>CRAFT)


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  • ひきこもり状態にある人の親に対するCRAFTプログラムの効果(<特集>CRAFT)

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The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT) for parents of individuals with hikikomori (prolonged social withdrawal). A CRAFT group and a self-help group each consisted of 7 parents. Both groups were requested to complete the following questionnaires: (a) Improvement of the individual with hikikomori or that person's engagement in treatment, (b) the Negative Evaluation for Hikikomori (Negative Evaluation) test, (c) the Self-efficacy of Coping with Problem Behaviors of Individuals with Hikikomori (Self-efficacy) test, (d) the Stress Response Scale-18 (SRS-18), and (e) the Hikikomori Relationship Function Scale (HRFS). These questionnaires were administered before and after the intervention and at a 2-month follow-up, in order to assess effectiveness of the intervention. Of the individuals with hikikomori in the CRAFT group, the parents reported that 42.9% had recovered or were engaged in treatment. The results of the present study indicated that participants in both groups reported enhanced self-efficacy, positive reinforcement on the HRFS, and negative reinforcement on the HRFS. Furthermore, the parents' psychological maladjustment, "depressive-anxious" and "irritable-anger" as reported on the SRS-18, were reduced. Based on the results of the present study, the discussion identified future tasks, including controlling factors that may influence the effectiveness of treatment.


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