The <i>Caturbhaginītantra</i> Mentioned by Karṇakagomin

  • Tokushige Hiroshi

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  • Karṇakagominが言及する<i>Caturbhaginītantra</i>について


<p>Dharmakīrti (c. A.D. 600-660) mentioned two examples of esoteric literature in his Pramāṇavārttikasvavṛtti: the Ḍākinītantra and the Bhaginītantra. Karṇakagomin (c. A.D. 9-10th century) rephrased Bhaginītantra as CaturbhaginītantraThe Tantra of the Four Sisters) in his commentary on the Pramāṇavārttikasvavṛtti titled Pramāṇavārttikaṭīkā. An earlier study presumed that the Four Sisters here were the four goddesses Jayā, Vijayā, Ajitā/Jayantī, and Aparājitā, and positioned the Bhaginītantra as the generic name for the Śaiva scriptures on these four goddesses. However, that study did not cite any concrete evidence for the use of the phrase Caturbhaginītantra in Śaiva literature.</p><p>The author has conducted an exhaustive survey of the term Caturbhaginītantra to clarify this issue. As a result, it was learned that the Caturbhaginītantra was incorporated into the esoteric Buddhist scripture called Śrīparamādya. This chapter contains maṇḍala and rituals related to the four goddesses Rati, Māraṇī, Vārāhī, and Siddhikāśī, adopted from Hinduism. Thus, based on the existence of the term Caturbhaginītantra, we can suppose that Karṇakagomin paraphrased Bhaginītantra as Caturbhaginītantra with an awareness of this literature in the Śrīparamādya. Furthermore, if the views expressed in this commentary are valid, the Śrīparamādya was already established by the time Dharmakīrti was alive, and there is a possibility that he also referred to this Buddhist scripture.</p>



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