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The Transition of Gender Cognition for The Last Twenty Years in Japanese Students (2)

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  • 大学生におけるジェンダー特性語の認知(2)性分類反応からみた1970年代と1990年代の比較
  • ダイガクセイ ニ オケル ジェンダー トクセイゴ ノ ニンチ 2 セイ ブンルイ ハンノウ カラ ミタ 1970ネンダイ ト 1990ネンダイ ノ ヒカク

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Abstract

This study examined the transition of gender (sex-role) cognition for the last twenty years in Japanese students. The assumption was that their cognition of gender traits had changed towards equity and androgyny. Data were collected in the1970s and the 1990s. Different samples of 1,000 college students (about half were females) participated in each time period. The questionnaires consisted of fifty adjectives that represented typical gender personality traits in Japanese culture during the 1970s. Participants in each group were asked to classify each stimulus trait into four categories, that is, male stereotyped traits (M), female stereotyped ones (F), both male and female ones (androgynous, MF), or neither (N). The data were analyzed by Hayashi's third method of quantification. Through this analysis, 4 axes were extracted. The first axis was named "MF-M/F". The second one was named "Traditional-Reversal". The third one was named "M/MF-F". The fourth one was called "F-M/MF". A mean score of each 4 axes was submitted to a 2 (Time Period) × 2 (Sex) analysis of variance. Main results were as follows. The significant differences between 2 time periods were found in all the 4 axes and significant sex differences were found in only the first and third axis. The significant interactions of time period and sex were found in the first, third and fourth axis except the second one. Through the above analyses, three main results appeared. First, the classification in the 1970s based on the traditional gender (sex-role) stereotypes decreased and the androgynous classification increased in the 1990s. Second, some reversal classifications also were found, that is, some typical male traits in the 1970s were classified into female traits in the 1990s. Third, the change of cognition from traditional towards innovative and androgynous had taken place more remarkably in male students than in female students. Despite this progress of male students, female students still always had a slight lead. The reasons of these changes were discussed.

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