Present knowledge on the consequences of tokamak disruption and disruption-related effects are reviewed from a viewpoint of disruption mitigation and/or avoidance. The Vertical Displacement Events(VDEs), which are frequently observed in disruptive discharges of elongated tokamaks, are described in detail with an emphasis on the close relationships between the generation of halo currents and runaway electrons. The newly found "neutral point", at which VDEs hardly occur, is also addressed. Finally, VDE-related issues remaining to be addressed in future works are discussed.
Journal of plasma and fusion research 77 (9), 843-856, 2001-09-25